National Water Laws in South Africa Over the last fifteen years, South Africa has completely reworked its legislative and policy framework Kranz et al. This document stipulates a benefits-sharing approach for international water resources, in accordance with the Helsinki rules. It favours work at the regional level for water management, to enable all affected parties to participate and to address the requirements of IWRM. The Acts are complementary and provide a framework for sustainable water resource management while enabling improved and broadened service delivery.
Realists interpret world politics as a struggle for power and survival in the anarchic world. The paper therefore seeks to a determine the reasons for military intervention and the extent to which it was conducted on humanitarian grounds; b investigate the degree to which the intervention by the South African state was encouraged by national interests; and c determine the nature of involvement by the SADC, African Union AU and the United Nations Security Council UNSC in the intervention, to allow South Africa to attack another state.
In this context, I argue that South Africa appear to have used the intervention, as a realist foreign policy tool, to pursue its strategic and economic interests, especially without authorisation from the UN, the AU and the SADC. Botswana assisted in this undertaking and there were no other SADC member countries involved.
These military involvements took place after the end of the Cold War. In this period, there was high optimism that there would be finally peace and stability in the region of Southern Africa. I am convinced that realist interests rather than humanitarian intentions motivated the military intervention by South Africa in I perceive the military intervention by South Africa in support of the ruling government in Lesotho and in opposition to other domestic forces as motivated by realist interests.
On the part of South Africa, there is definitely a need for a stable Lesotho to ensure constant protection of these interests. In addition to security interests, South Africa needed to show that it had power and capacity to lead the regional body.
Overall, the actions of South Africa in the Lesotho debacle were a clear indication that the country would do everything in its power and capacity to protect these interests.
Foreign military intervention in Lesotho's elections dispute: G cMwangi O Hydropolitics, Ecocide and Human Security in Lesotho: In pursuit of this point, I analyze the general political mood in Southern Africa the before and at the time of the attack. With this, I hope to portray a picture of irresponsibility of on the part of South Africa and the SADC in using military force in Lesotho, while there were serious ongoing conflicts in the region that needed their immediate attention.
I wish to stress that I am not suggesting that Lesotho needed to be left alone and suffocate. But, my argument is that South Africa, in particular, overreacted by sending troops, instead of seeking non-military intervention to solve the problem at hand. With this paper, I therefore endeavor to a determine the reasons for military intervention and the extent to which it was conducted on humanitarian grounds; b investigate the degree to which the intervention by the South African state was encouraged by national interests; and c determine the nature of involvement by the SADC, African Union AU and the United Nations Security Council UNSC in the intervention, to allow South Africa to attack another state.
The main literature review of the paper is dedicated to the political and economic history as well as the current realities of the sub-region of Southern Africa. Without this background, I assume that it will be challenging for a reader to fully understand and appreciate the political dynamics of Southern Africa.
South Africa’s water law applied the rules of the well-watered colonising countries of Europe to the arid and variable climate of South Africa. Water was mostly used by a dominant group which had privileged access to land and economic power. The victory of democracy demands that national policy on water use and the water law be reviewed. The South African National Water Act (Act 36 of ) was hailed by the international water community as one of the most progressive pieces of water legislation in the world, and a major step forward in the. South Africa’s ministries are established and revised by the president under a framework provided by the constitution. The Cabinet of South Africa forms its executive branch and is made up of the president, the deputy president, the ministers and the deputy ministers.
I focus specifically on South Africa and Lesotho as units of analysis. The relations between the states in the region were informed by the struggles for liberation and the Cold War.
The military intervention in was a bombshell to those who had hoped for a peaceful co-existence between the states in Southern Africa. The country is now a leader in the peacekeeping and c 4 peacemaking efforts in the African continent.
In this light, I see South Africa playing an important role in diffusing conflicts, using peaceful and acceptable methods, across the continent. The rationalist approach to international relations purports that the concept of sovereignty is a right of states, but this sovereignty can be violated by members of international community in extreme cases, such as human rights violations.
The paradigm also supports the existence of the rule of law, as it is seen as a catalyst for reducing conflicts between states. The explanations put henceforth by the South African government for deploying troops in Lesotho were understandable at face value. But, I am not in agreement with these preposterous justifications for a number of reasons.
First, the decision to invade kingdom was made easy by the fact that Lesotho is smaller country with limited resources and depends entirely on South Africa for survival. Second, I question if South Africa would have used the same military tactics on the neighbouring bigger states, such as Mozambique or Zimbabwe.
Second, the old apartheid South African regime and its military were responsible for massacres in the neighbouring countries, including Lesotho, until the early s. South Africa refused to participate in the Congolese war and specifically called for the need for a peaceful solution in the DRC.
In addition, the SADC never used military intervention to solve problems in member states. It was a well-known fact that the SADC did not, and still does not, have the capacity of stopping conflict in the region.
For example, civil wars in Angola and Mozambique raged for many years, especially in the early s, and the SADC never intervened.
South Africa entered the kingdom to protect the water resources, situated within the borders of Lesotho. WATER RESOURCES Water is an essential element to our everyday existence.
Its role is vital in the sustenance of all life forms, as well as in agricultural, industrial, households, recreational and environmental activities. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry is the custodian of South Africa's water resources. Part of as determined by ongoing research and review of local and international The South African Water Quality Guidelines contain similar information to what s i.
South African military intervention in Lesotho - A critical overview. 34 Pages. or download with email. South African military intervention in Lesotho - A critical overview. Download.
South African military intervention in Lesotho - A critical overview.
Uploaded by. where South Africa¶s water resources are likely to be threatened, the. Interestingly enough South Africa boast one of the most clean water systems in the world, however due to the lack of sanitation and access in the country's rural communities the threat of water borne disease is steadily increasing.
The Vaal River, the largest river in South Africa and popular tourist destination is becoming increasingly contaminated .
Schreiner: Implementing the South African National Water Act Page | by the minister to address a number of challenges facing the department, and most recently, as Chair of the Board of the Water Research Commission.
The current state of South Africa’s public health care. Food & Health. WHO: I told you Tedros Adhanom is an empty suit! Home» Governance» Millennium Development Goals: A critique from the South.
Millennium Development Goals: A critique from the South. reduce by half the population having no access to clean water, improve living.