Ancient Greece Ancient Greece was the birthplace of Western philosophical ethics. The ideas of Socrates c. The sudden flowering of philosophy during that period was rooted in the ethical thought of earlier centuries. In the poetic literature of the 7th and 6th centuries bce, there were, as in other culturesmoral precepts but no real attempts to formulate a coherent overall ethical position.
Please be patient while it loads! The zip-file will automatically uncompress and you can view it offline on your browser. A selected bibliography from mainstream journals with sample quotations This page will provide you with source references that you can cut and paste.
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You are theth visitor since 15 Jan using the above URL. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, May43 5: When a physician provides either equipment or medication, or informs the patient of the most efficacious use of already available Nonmaleficence ethical principle essay, for the sole purpose of assisting the patient to end his or her own life.
When, at the request of the patient, a physician administers a medication or treatment, the sole intent of which is to end the patient's life. Canadian Medical Association Journal9: Treatment of incompetent elderly patients with life-threatening illness varies widely within and between countries.
Uniform standards should be developed on the basis of societal values and be communicated to physicians. Family physicians were more likely than specialists to choose more conservative therapy. This was true even when the wishes were expressed in an explicit written directive. Journal of American Medical Association, August 9,6: Many members of the public assume that taking a lethal dose of medication is certain to lead to a peaceful death.
Physicians need to help patients appreciate that the attempt may fail, that complications such as aspiration pneumonia may occur, and that reflex actions may lead patients to struggle against plastic bags placed over their heads.
Patients and their families should also be cautioned about telephoning if the suicide attempt fails. New England Journal of Medicine ; The document is a will in the sense that it spells out the person's directions.
It is "living" because it takes effect before death. Some Massachusetts attorneys, for example, have already drafted a page, single-spaced proxy form that is all but unintelligible to non-lawyers. This is a serious error for at least two reasons. When Procedures Limit Rights: From Quinlan to Conroy.
Hastings Center Report Apr: A proposed advance directive format for South Australia. Australian Health Law Bulletin ; 2 7: Patient requests and Physician Responses.
Journal of the American Medical Association Physicians do not consult each other often about these cases. Drafting Wills in Scotland.
It might be argued that the physician's duty of mercy derives from a special contractual or fiduciary relationship with the patient, but I think this is an error: It is true that the Oath, in its original form, does contain an explicit injunction that the physician shall not give a lethal potion to a patient who requests it, nor make a suggestion to that effect.
To do so was apparently common Greek medical practice at the time. But the Oath in its original form also contains explicit prohibitions of the physicians accepting fees for teaching medicine, and of performing surgery - even on gall stones.
These latter prohibitions are not retained in modern reformulations of the Oath, and I see no reason why the provision against giving lethal potions to patients who request it should be.Hypothetical Treatment of Ethical Dilemma - This paper is an analysis of a hypothetical vignette in which a counselor-in-training named Callie, a fairly experienced and nearly-licensed counselor supervisee, approaches her counselor supervisor for advice and direction regarding an ethical dilemma.
A. AGS Ethics Committee, Physician-Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Active Euthanasia. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, May , 43(5) Abstract.
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study was a forty year-long study in which researchers observed the natural progression of syphilis in African-American men. The history of Western ethics Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century The ancient Middle East and Asia.
The first ethical precepts must have been passed down by word of mouth from parents and elders, but as societies learned to use the written word, they began to set down their ethical beliefs.
These records constitute the first historical evidence of the origins of ethics. Critically analyse how ethical, professional and legal issues underpin nursing practice.
1. Introduction. Ethics regards standards of moral judgement and professional conduct. Power in Psychotherapy and Counseling. Re-thinking the 'power differential' myth and exploring the moral, ethical, professional, and clinical issues of power in therapy.