Familial Influences The child's family is the most important factor in his development. Whether he is raised by parents, grandparents, or others, the family provides bonding and first relationships.
Is it the responsibility of an individual's genetic makeup that makes them a criminal or is it the environment in which they are raised that determines their outcome?
Research has been conducted regarding this debate which has resulted in a conclusion that both genes and environment do play a role in the criminality of an individual. This evidence has been generated from a number of twin, family, and adoption studies as well as laboratory experiments.
Furthermore, the research has stated that it is more often an interaction between genes and the environment that predicts criminal behavior.
Having a genetic predisposition for criminal behavior does not determine the actions of an individual, but if they are exposed to the right environment, then their chances are greater for engaging in criminal or anti-social behavior. Therefore, this paper will examine the different functions that genetics and the environment play in the criminal behavior of individuals.
There is a vast amount of evidence that shows our criminal justice system is the new home for individuals with psychological problems. Although this may seem like a solution to some, it is creating a dilemma for our society. Once we label these individuals as criminals it creates a stigma for those who may suffer from psychological problems.
Certain psychological problems have been shown to be heritable and if given the right circumstances, individuals with those genes could find themselves engaging in criminal activity. Therefore, should society look towards limiting the reproductive capabilities of individuals who suffer from certain psychological problems to better society?
That same question was asked back in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when the role of genetics in crime was widely accepted Joseph, Prominent researchers believed that genes were fully responsible for criminal activity and that criminals could be identified by their physiological features.
This period was therefore marked with inhumane treatment and the belief that genes were the sole reason behind criminal behavior. Not long after the practices of controlled breeding, there was evidence to support the idea that the environment also played an important role in crime.
Early family studies were conducted that showed a predisposition for criminal behavior as a result of inherited characteristics, but that an individual's characteristics and personality could still be modified by the environment Joseph, Although these studies were void of high validity and reliability, it still raised the question of whether the environment can also influence individuals to act in a criminal manner.
The debate between genetics and environment continues today with much more reliable research and data. Consequently, this paper will examine the various roles in which both genes and environmental factors influence criminal behavior.
Definition and Measurement of Criminal Behavior To fully understand the nature of how genes and the environment influence criminal behavior, one must first know how criminal behavior is defined.
Therefore determining what constitutes criminal behavior can envelope a wide variety of activities and for that reason, researchers tend to focus on the wider context of antisocial behavior.
Authors Morley and Hallwho have investigated the genetic influences on criminal behavior, point out three different ways to define antisocial behavior. First is equating it with criminality and delinquency, which both involve engaging in criminal acts. Information can be collected using court and criminal records, as well as self report surveys to analyze the influences that were present.
Secondly, they advise individuals to define antisocial behavior is through criteria used to diagnose certain personality disorders. More specifically, they mean those personality disorders, such as Antisocial Personality Disorder, which is associated with an increased risk in criminal activity.
A final measure suggested for defining antisocial behavior is by examining personality traits that may be influential in the criminal behavior of individuals.
Further details of disorders and personality traits associated with criminal behavior will be discussed later in the paper. With regards to determining the effects the environment plays in criminal behavior there are fewer resources available.
Observational studies and reports submitted by parents are two sources, but not everyone agrees on the validity of information collected from these sources.
Twin, Adoption, and Family Studies There has been great debate between researchers regarding the outcomes of twin, adoption, and family studies. On the other hand, some have concluded that there is not enough evidence from these twin, family, and adoption studies to profess that genetics do play a role in antisocial or criminal behavior Lowenstein, Mar 25, · What Influences Child Development?
Updated on June 9, Sarah Johnson. more. Contact Author. Source. There are many factors that influence child development, and for most of them, we do have some control. If we have a good understanding of what children need to grow, we are better able to address the needs.
and socio-economic status Reviews: Health and Well-Being. These factors are interrelated, and one factor can compound another. For instance, substandard housing, inadequate medical care, and poor nutrition can affect the rate of childhood disease, premature births, and low birth weights, all of which affect a child's physical and cognitive development.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and grupobittia.com analyzing a family's SES, the household income, earners' education, and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, whereas for an.
The Specificity of Environmental Influence: Socioeconomic Status Affects Early Vocabulary Development Via Maternal Speech specific effects of differences in language-learning theory of how and to what extent the environment influences development in general and language acquisition in particular.
One view is that develop-ment. Abstract. Children’s cognitive abilities and school achievements are deeply affected by parental socioeconomic status (SES).
Numerous studies have reported lower cognitive performance in relation to unfavorable environments, but little is known about the effects of SES on the child’s neural structures.
There are four main factors affecting a child’s development, according to grupobittia.com: individual child behavior and health, family life, learning environment and socioeconomic grupobittia.comd: Jun 17, Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Sri Lanka's staple meal is a large serving of rice accompanied by up to twelve different side dishes of vegetables, egg, meat, or fish stewed together with peppers, spices, and often coconut milk. Socioeconomic status and cultural influences on language. Author links open overlay panel Erika Hoff Chunyan and culture to properties of the interactions children experience and to the rate of children's language development. The first study is an investigation of the relations among family SES, properties of maternal child-directed .
This kind of stress exerts a devastating, insidious influence on children's physical, psychological, emotional, and cognitive functioning—areas that affect brain development, academic success, and social competence.